In the first part of the publication a review of processes used for deionization of water is presented and main physicochemical phenomena occurring in electromembrane processes will be discussed. The subsequent parts are devoted to the experimental verification of novel improvements for two electromembrane processes: electrodialysis and continuous electrodeionization. Considering electrodialysis, an investigation on ion-exchange membranes with profiled surfaces will be presented. It includes a section of appropriate membrane manufacturing procedures and desalination tests with profiled membranes. It turns out that electrodialysis with profiled ion-exchange membranes is superior to conventional electrodialysis with flat membranes and spacers, in particular with respect to desalination degree and reduced energy consumption.
Considering continuous electrodeionization, experimental studies concerning improvements of continuous electrodeionization with bipolar membranes will be presented and discussed. Influence of ion-exchange membrane permselectivity on the product water quality is demonstrated and proposed improvements are aimed to reduce this influence. Concepts with a so-called protection compartment will be discussed and compared experimentally with a concept where the concentrate compartments are filled with ion exchange resin beads. It will be shown that improved continuous electrodeionization with bipolar membranes is able to produce ultrapure water in a quality comparable to conventional mixed-bed ion-exchangers but in a more cost effective and sustainable way.