The proposed control framework has a two-layer structure, with a distributed optimisation algorithm in the kinematic layer for generating proper joint configuration references, followed by a robot motion controller in the dynamic control layer to fulfil the reference. An indirect and a direct distributed optimisation method are developed for the kinematic layer, both of which are computationally and communicationally efficient. In the dynamic control layer, impedance control is employed for safe physical interaction.
As another highlight, abundant experiments carried out on a multi-arm test bench have demonstrated the effectiveness of the presented control schemes under various environmental and task settings. The recorded computation time shows the applicability of the control framework in practice.
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