Modern multimedia-based information systems can be used to assist in the acquisition of cognitive navigational knowledge. Personal digital assistants, navigation systems in cars, simulators and virtual environments are examples of such information systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibilities and limits in spatial knowledge acquisition. Theoretical foundations and test procedures are explained and actual researches are discussed. This study presents four experiments that investigate route planning, textual information and maps as navigational aids, virtual environments and maps as training methods, and the effects of a dynamic three-dimensional navigation display during a driving task. A catalogue of requirements is presented based on an overview of the main results.
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